Fran Kinniry

Francis M. Kinniry is a principal in Vanguard Investment Strategy Group, whose primary responsibilities are capital market research, portfolio design, development and implementation of customized investment solutions, investment market commentary, and research. The group's proprietary research on investment, economic, and portfolio management issues has been published in leading academic and practitioner journals. It also is responsible for establishing Vanguard's investment philosophy, methodology, and portfolio construction strategies. Mr. Kinniry has worked extensively with ultra high net worth families and institutional investors, creating customized portfolio solutions for their investment needs. He also initiated the Vanguard Investment Counseling & Research department and Vanguard Asset Management and Advisory Services. Before joining the company in 1997, he was a partner and senior portfolio manager for Executive Investment Advisors, Inc., an institutional asset management firm. Previously, he was a portfolio manager for H. Katz Capital, a venture capital and hedge fund manager. Mr. Kinniry has more than 20 years of experience in the industry and is a regular speaker on investment, economic, and portfolio management issues. He is a Chartered Financial Analyst® charterholder and earned his M.B.A. and bachelor's degrees from Drexel University.

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Visit vanguard.com or contact your broker to obtain a Vanguard ETF or fund prospectus which contains investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other information; read and consider carefully before investing.

Vanguard ETF Shares are not redeemable with the issuing Fund other than in very large aggregations worth millions of dollars. Instead, investors must buy and sell Vanguard ETF Shares in the secondary market and hold those shares in a brokerage account. In doing so, the investor may incur brokerage commissions and may pay more than net asset value when buying and receive less than net asset value when selling.

Investments in bond funds are subject to interest rate, credit, and inflation risk.

Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss in a declining market.

Foreign investing involves additional risks including currency fluctuations and political uncertainty.

Stocks of companies in emerging markets are generally more risky than stocks of companies in developed countries.

All investing is subject to risk, including possible loss of principal.